TOURISM

Key areas of study for this question:

  • What is tourism?
  • Why and how tourism has grown and changed?
  • Butlers Model
  • Advantages and disadvantages of tourism
  • Tourism in Cancun
  • Tourism in Iceland
  • Tourism in Ibiza
  • Conflicts created by tourism
  • National Parks
  • Sustainable/Ecotourism

 

WHAT IS TOURISM?

We usually think of tourism as going on holiday, but there are many other reasons why a person might visit a place. These include:

  • To attend a sporting event
  • To visit friends or celebrate an event
  • To improve health
  • For business
  • For prestige - to be able to tell your friends about it

 

DEFINITION - ‘The movement of people to places outside their normal places of work and community, the activities carried out during their holiday, and the facilities created to meet to their needs.’

 

Various factors can affect tourist areas, attractions and the nature of tourism - e.g. the landscape, heritage, culture, accessibility, language, climate, costs, wildlife and sporting events.

Tourism is a service industry. It provides pleasure for some and a source of income for others through a wide range of jobs. Tourism has become the world's fastest growing industry and by the year 2000, employed more people worldwide than any other industry.

 

MAKE SURE YOU KNOW WHAT ALL THESE KEY WORDS MEAN.

  • TOURIST - Someone who travels to and stays in a place that is not his or her usual place for a short period of time.
  • TOURISM - All the activities that tourists take part in, and the services that support them.
  • INBOUND TOURIST - Someone travelling into our country.
  • OUTBOUND TOURIST - Someone travelling out of our country.
  • DOMESTIC TOURIST - Someone who travels within a country boundary.
  • INTERNATIONAL TOURIST - Someone who travels across a country boundary.

WHY AND HOW TOURISM HAS GROWN AND CHANGED?

Tourism is the world's largest and fastest growing industry, with a turnover of around £450 billion. Until recently, it was an activity which largely concentrated in the richer, MEDC countries of the world, but it is increasingly becoming an important source of income in LEDC's.

Tourism has changed considerably in the last 40 years. Not only has there been a dramatic increase in tourism numbers, but there is now a wider range of holiday destinations. People also seem to be travelling further, and more often than ever before. There are several reasons for these changes.

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There has also been big changes in the distance people are willing to travel, the time of year people take holidays and the nature of the holidays taken.

  • Distant places like Florida, Kenya, Thailand and even Antarctica have become potential tourist destinations.
  • Ski resorts, once exclusive to the rich attract increasing numbers of tourists.
  • There has been a massive growth in 'short breaks' e.g. city breaks for a long weekend.
  • There has been a growth in the number of purpose built resorts, such as Center Parks, which houses extensive indoor facilities that are not dependent on the weather.
  • There has also been a growth in business tourism, including international business meetings and weekend conferences.

 

FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH OF TOURISM:

  • Since the 1950's people have become wealthier.
  • Incomes are larger and so is disposable income (the amount left to spend after essentials such as food and bills).
  • Most families have two working parents where as in the past it was usually one.
  • People have fewer children: less expensive to take a smaller family away than a large one.
  • Car ownership has grown.
  • People have more leisure time and holiday time from work has increased.
  • Life expectancy has risen so more people are retired many of whom have good pensions and can afford several trips a year.
  • Travel today is quick and easy due to motorways, airport expansion and faster jet aircraft.
  • Low cost airlines like Easyjet reduces the cost of flying.
  • Flying has become cheaper and booking online is quick and easy.
  • Increasing number of package holidays now available to destinations all over the world.
  • Ecotourism and unusual destinations such as Alaska and Kenya are expanding rapidly.

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lesson-2-growth-of-tourism.pptx lesson-2-growth-of-tourism.pptx

BUTLERS MODEL

The history of tourism in the UK provides an example - or model - of how a tourist industry might develop in any particular nation.

Butler developed a model which shows how any tourist resort may grow. A resort may start off from being a small, low key, destination. He suggests that all resorts go through the same sort of process.

The 7 stages of tourist development:

  1. Exploration - A small number of tourists visit the area. The area is unspoilt and few tourist facilities exist.
  2. Involvement - Local people start to provide some facilities for tourists. There starts to become a recognised tourist season.
  3. Development - The host country starts to develop and advertise the area. The area becomes recognised as a tourist destination.
  4. Consolidation - The area continues to attract tourists. The growth in tourist numbers may not be a fast as before. Some tensions develop between the host and the tourists.
  5. Stagnation - The facilities for the tourists may decline as they become old and run down. The numbers of tourists may decline too.
  6. Rejuvenation - Investment and modernisation may occur which leads to improvements and visitor numbers may increase again.
  7. Decline - If the resort is not rejuvenated (stage 6) then it will go into decline. People lose their jobs related to tourism. The image of the area suffers.

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BUTLERS MODEL AND BLACKPOOL

Blackpool was originally a small fishing village on the north west coast, however today it is one of the most popular coastal resorts in the UK.

1860s: Arrival of the railway from Manchester brought thousands of people for a day out at the seaside – closest coast to the city

1900s: hotels and tourist entertainment facilities built so people could spend longer at the resort

1920s: development of cars and coaches brought people from inland cities. Resort grew.

1950s: increasing wealth and paid holidays meant huge numbers of people coming to the resort for a week or fortnight holiday.

1960s: Pleasure Park developed with some of the most exciting thrills & rides in Britain

1970s: cost of Package Holidays to Spain were coming down, so fewer tourists coming to Blackpool for their main holiday – but still many weekend and day visitors

1990s: Keeps putting in new rides and gets celebrities to open the Blackpool Illuminations each September & develops new plans

2010s: Has become the ‘Hen Party/ Stag Party’ focus for Britain – also a major Conference Centre. Voted the most popular coastal resort in Britain.

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lesson-3-butlers-model.ppt lesson-3-butlers-model.ppt

lesson-3-butler-model-worksheet.doc lesson-3-butler-model-worksheet.doc

lesson-3-butlers-costa-del-sol-worksheet.doc lesson-3-butlers-costa-del-sol-worksheet.doc

 

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM

 
Tourism has both positive and negative impacts for an area. In the majority of MEDC’s tourism has been the catalyst for economic growth. Some LEDC's rely on tourism as their principle industry so much that when a problem occurs they have to work very quickly to rectify it. Although tourism is seen as a development strategy by many countries, it does not solely create advantages, but can also create some disadvantages.
 
Advantages of tourism:
  • Brings money to the area.
  • Provides jobs for local people.
  • Improvments can be made to infrastructure.
  • Income can help conserve the natural environment.
  • Brings in new industries.
  • Can preserve local cultures and communities.

Disadvantages of tourism:

  • Very little money actually reaches the country - the majority of it is swallowed up by travel companies, airlines etc.
  • Bad working conditions, long hours and badly paid jobs.
  • Damage to the natural environment.
  • Litter, noise, pollution and even crime.
  • Big chain hotels can take business from local companies.
  • Local cultures can be lost e.g. McDonalds - 30,000 restaurants in the world, operating in over 100 countries.

 

lesson-5-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-tourism.ppt lesson-5-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-tourism.ppt

lesson-5-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-tourism.doc lesson-5-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-tourism.doc

lesson-5-effects-of-tourism-worksheet.doc lesson-5-effects-of-tourism-worksheet.doc

 

TOURISM IN CANCUN

 
In 1967, Cancun’s history was changed forever when a computer search chose it as the ideal spot for a Mexican beach resort. Before the Mexican government decided to transform a strip of sand inhabited by about hundreds of birds, iguanas and a handful of Mayan fishermen into a major tourist resort, Cancun was a peaceful, isolated paradise. Construction began in 1974 and the current city of Cancun rose out of the sand and jungle as a city with no past, populated by people who were born someplace else. By the mid-1980’s Cancun had become one of the most popular tourist destinations. A mere 25 years old, it has mushroomed into a vibrant city with 50,000 inhabitants and 3 million visitors per year, including 2 million foreign tourists.
 
THE 'TOURIST ZONE': A narrow island 14 miles long, is the area of Cancun where it all comes together for most visitors. In the tourist area one is never very far from the water so naturally much of your time is going to be spent in, on, or very close to the water. Restaurants and nightclubs in the tourist zone, of which there are many, come in endless varieties with something that is just right for everyone.
 
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Cancun is a classic example of mass tourism. In other words, a huge number of jobs have been created by the massive number of tourists arriving on a relatively cheap package holiday.
 
MASS TOURISM DEFINITION - Mass tourism is a form of tourism that involves tens of thousands of people going to the same resort often at the same time of year.It is the most popular form of tourism as it is often the cheapest way to holiday, and is often sold as a package deal.
 
 
 

TOURISM IN ICELAND

Tourism in Iceland has become a more significant part of the national economy. The tourism industry was estimated to contribute to 4.1% of the country's GNP as of 2006. In 2010, 500,000 tourists visited Iceland.

Tourism to Iceland has grown steadily since the 1990s. In 2000, the annual number of visitors exceeded the total resident population for the first time. Since then, tourism has grown by about 1% on average each year. Some 360,000 people visited Iceland in 2004, compared with 485,000 in 2007 and over 500,000 in 2008.

Jobs in the tourism industry were estimated at 8,211 in 2006 (4.5% of the workforce, compared to 6% each in the fishing industry and in agriculture).

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lesson-8-tourism-in-iceland-medc-case-study.ppt lesson-8-tourism-in-iceland-medc-case-study.ppt

lesson-8-sustainable-tourism-in-iceland.doc lesson-8-sustainable-tourism-in-iceland.doc

 

TOURISM IN IBIZA

Ibiza is a small island located in the west of the Mediterranean. It is one of the Balearic Islands. Ibiza is considered a popular tourist destination, especially due to its legendary nightlife centred around two areas: Ibiza Town, the island's capital on the southern shore and Sant Antonio to the west. The tourism season is usually between the months of May and October and is extremely popular with younger tourists (18-30 package holidays) looking for the lively clubbing type of holidays (mass tourism).

 

For decades Ibiza has depended more or less entirely on its tourist industry. Now it's time for a change. The current government's aim is to revolutionise Ibiza's image. In future, the island will focus on attracting visitors by promoting its cultural heritage and leisure facilities rather than its nightlife. However, a transformation like this is not an easy thing to achieve and comes with risks. However, travel agencies are not impressed by the new range of top hotels. They earn their living by catering to the crowds and are not interested in taking on the more exclusive end of the accommodation market.

 

ADVANTAGES OF TOURISM IN IBIZA:

  • The locals get jobs in hotels, restaurants and as tour guides etc.
  • Taxes from tourists help improve services in the Ibiza.
  • Improved standard of living.
  • Improved infrastructure.

DISADVANTAGES OF TOURISM IN IBIZA:

  • Noise pollution - most clubs are open until 6am.
  • Hotels spoil the natural scenery.
  • Traffic congestion.
  • Bad publicity - Bad behaviour of tourists including alcohol and drugs.
  • Loss of Spanish culture.
  • Increased amount of waste.
  • Air pollution from planes and cars.
  • Disturbed wildlife and marine life - especially from watersports.

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lesson-9-tourism-in-ibiza.ppt lesson-9-tourism-in-ibiza.ppt

lesson-9-ibiza-video-clip-questions.doc lesson-9-ibiza-video-clip-questions.doc 

(See powerpoint to links for videos on advantages and disadvantages of tourism in Ibiza)

CONFLICTS CREATED BY TOURISM

As tourism in Bali enjoys a robust period, the island is struggling to cope with diminishing water resources that have been overexploited to meet the increasing demand for clean water for tourist-related facilities, while the industry has done little to solve the problem. Bali is an important case study because 80% of its economy depends on tourism and tourism depends on a healthy water supply.

Tourism in Bali provides 481,000 direct jobs, directly employing 25% of the workforce and supporting more than 50% of its GDP. However, In Bali, tourism absorbed 65% of the island’s total water supply.

The latest data shows that 1.7 million out of Bali’s 3.9 million population have inadequate access to a supply of clean water.
Previously, Djinaldi Gosana, executive director of the Bali Hotel Association, explained that four- and five-star hotels operating on the island needed at least 50,000 liters of clean water every day, not to mention the usage of water by non-starred hotels, villas and new types of accommodation, including apartments.

Mass tourism, is a water-intensive industry, and the level and pace of continued development in Bali could not be sustained. In 1987, there were only 5,000 hotel rooms in Bali, while by July 2012 the number of rooms had surged to 90,000 rooms, according to the Bali tourism agency.

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lesson-12-water-conflicts.pptx lesson-12-water-conflicts.pptx

lesson-12-water-conflicts-pics.ppt lesson-12-water-conflicts-pics.ppt

lesson-12-water-conflicts-resource-a.pdf lesson-12-water-conflicts-resource-a.pdf

lesson-12-water-conflicts-resource-b.pdf lesson-12-water-conflicts-resource-b.pdf

 

NATIONAL PARKS

National Parks are large areas of beautiful countryside. Their scenery and wildlife are protected so that everyone can enjoy them. There are 2 basic aims:

  1. To preserve and care for the environment.
  2. To provide a place for relaxation and outdoor creation.

Britain's first National Parks were created in the 1950's. They are areas of attractive countryside but also places where people live and work. They include small towns, villages as well as industries such as farming, forestry and mining.

 

WHO OWNS THE NATIONAL PARKS? - The term 'National Park' can be misleading. They are not owned by the nation, and people do not have the right to wander where they like and do what they want. In fact, most of the land belongs to private individuals, like farmers and house owners.

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There are currently 15 National Parks in the UK - 10 in England, 3 in Wales and 2 in Scotland.

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THE PEAK DISTRICT NATIONAL PARK

The Peak District National Park is an upland area located in Central England. It became the UK's first National Park in 1951. The Peak District covers an area of 1,440 km2. The Peak District is the world's second most visited National Park after Mount Fuji National Park in Japan. The Peak District is visited so much because it is surrounded by many large urban populations e.g. Sheffield, Derby, Stoke, Manchester and Nottingham. The Peak District has numerous human and physical attractions.

 

HUMAN ATTRACTIONS:

  • Chatsworth Hose
  • Peveril Castle
  • Castleton (beautiful rural village)
  • Bakewell (beautiful rural village and home of a local delicacy - Bakewell tart)
  • Reservoirs (including Ladybower)

PHYSICAL ATTRACTIONS:

  • Natural moorland environment, including the parks highest peak (Kinder scout)
  • Limestone feature e.g. Dovedale Valley
  • Rivers e.g Dove
  • Cave networks e.g. Blue John Cavern (some networks have been enlarged by mining)
  • The Roaches (limestone cliff face that attracts climbers)
  • Natural springs at Buxton

 

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PROBLEMS CAUSED BY TOURISM IN THE PEAK DISTRICT:

  • The Peak District's roads are small and have become heavily congested.
  • Some tourists drop littering which is unsightly and can harm animals.
  • Many tourists do not stay on the footpaths causing erosion either side of the path and damaging crops.
  • Some tourists leave farm gates open allowing animals to escape.
  • A lot of the employment is only seasonal.
  • Many tourists have purchased second homes.This means many houses are vacant for long periods leading to rural depopulation and service decline.
  • Tourists create air, noise and water pollution.
  • The large demand from tourists has caused local inflation (increase in prices).

 

BENEFITS OF TOURISM IN THE PEAK DISTRICT:

  • Job creation (it is estimated tourism creates 14,200 jobs in the Peak District.
  • Income to the area.
  • Improved infrastructure (roads, electricity).
  • Improved facilities e.g. restaurants, golf courses, etc.
  • Protection of historical landmarks e.g. Peveril Castle.
  • Protection of natural beauty.
  • Improved reputation and image.

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A number of solutions have been suggested in the Peak District to try and reduce the impacts of tourism. The suggested solutions include:

  • A charge to be placed on people entering the national park (entrance fee)
  • A quota on the number of people visiting the national park e.g. 10,000 a day.
  • Improved footpaths and improved footpath signs
  • Increased fines for people littering and more bins.
  • Improved public transport, especially park and rides so people leave their cars outside the national park
  • A redistribution of tourists. Advertise different sites with in the park better so people are spread out more evenly.

However, a lot of these solutions are hard to implement because the Peak District National Park is a working park. This means people live and work within the park so any restrictions on movement or charges will be difficult to enforce.

 

For more information on National Parks - http://www.nationalparks.gov.uk/ 

 

SUSTAINABLE / ECOTOURISM

People responsible for tourist sites are looking to manage them in sustainable ways. Sustainable methods include limiting visitor numbers to prevent damage, as used at the Pyramids in Egypt.

Sustainable tourism is tourism attempting to have a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for local people, tourism companies and the tourists themselves. The guidelines focus on 4 main areas:

  1. Maximizing tourism’s social and economic benefits to local communities;
  2. Reducing negative impacts on cultural heritage;
  3. Reducing harm to local environments;
  4. Planning for sustainability.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN URBAN AREAS:

  • Recycling Bins
  • Enforced fines for littering
  • Pedestrianised areas
  • Cheap public transport
  • Bike hire
  • Promote local hotels and shops
  • Reduce electricity and water waste by educating tourists
  • Ensure locals can also afford to visit nationally visit historic sites. Many countries run dual pricing, where tourists pay more than locals to visit sites.
  • Possible introduce quotas or curfews to protect areas.
  • Ensure locals are not priced out of local market - try and maintain traditional mix of residents, tourists, businesses, etc.

 

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS:

  • Banning of plastic bags (very harmful to turtles who mistake them for jellyfish)
  • Avoid light pollution near turtle nesting sites. Baby turtles are often confused by light and struggle to find the sea (normally they use the light from the horizon)
  • Avoid sewage being pumped into the sea
  • Promote sustainable diving (possible introduce quotas like in Sipadan in Malaysia)
  • Avoid privatisation of beaches. Ensure that locals can also use the beach
  • Stop trade in coral, turtles shells, etc.
  • Ensure that seafood is caught from sustainable sources. In Japan, sustainable sushi is being introduced to protect blue fin tuna, whales, etc.
  • Minimise damage to mangroves, dunes, forests, etc. when building resorts.
  • Ensure proper boating channels to avoid injury and death to turtles, manatees, etc. from speed boats and jet skis.

 

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN NATIONAL PARKS:

  • Create National Parks to protect flora and fauna
  • Reforest areas that have been damaged or logged
  • Ensure that no illegal logging takes place
  • Stop poaching (catching wild animals) by making it illegal and enforcing with strong penalties.
  • Only allow low impact activities e.g. walking, horse riding.
  • Start breeding and reintroduction programmes e.g. the giant panda in China.
  • Only allow small scale developments using locals products to build the small-scale low-impact developments e.g. basic cabins or just tents
  • Use renewable energy sources e.g. local HEP
  • Ensure no non-biodegradable products are released into local water sources or the ground
  • Educate tourists about flora and fauna and the importance of protection.
  • Give flora and fauna and economic value, making animals more valuable a live than dead. In Rwanda tourists now pay $500 to see mountain gorillas. This has completely stopped poaching because the mountain gorillas are now more valuable alive than dead.

 

lesson-13-sustainable-tourism.doc lesson-13-sustainable-tourism.doc

 

ECOTOURISM

Ecotourism encourages visitors to a country to leave a small carbon footprint, to the benefit of local communities and environments. It has become an increasingly popular option for many people.

Ecotourism is a type of sustainable development. The aim of ecotourism is to reduce the impact that tourism has on naturally beautiful environments. Any tourist destination can be harmed by increased levels of tourism. If areas are damaged or destroyed, they might not be available to future generations.

THE ECOTOURISM APPROACH IS:

  • Ensuring that tourism does not exploit the natural environment or local communities.
  • Consultation with local communities on planned developments.
  • Making sure that infrastructure improvements benefit local people and not just tourists.

GUIDLINES FOR ECOTOURISTS:

Ecotourism sets out guidelines for how tourists should behave when visiting fragile environments:

  • Protect the environment - keep to footpaths, don't leave litter or start fires.
  • Don't interfere with wildlife - don't scare or feed the animals.
  • Protect resources - don't take too many showers or use air conditioning.
  • Support local communities - stay in locally owned accommodation and buy produce from local people.
  • Eat local food and drink - avoid products that have been imported from MEDCs.
  • Respect local customs and traditions - some communities are offended when tourists wear inappropriate clothes in religious places, strip off on the beach or behave in a rowdy manner. Locals appreciate tourists who try to learn the language and show an interest in their culture.

Ecotourism is increasingly popular and many people appreciate remote locations, small numbers of tourists and less sophisticated facilities (Kenya, Uganda, Amazon Rainforest etc). If a resort becomes overdeveloped then they will choose alternative destinations.

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HONEYPOT SITES

A honeypot is a particularly popular visitor attraction which attracts tourists (and sometimes locals) in large numbers. The term 'honeypot' originates from bees buzzing around a hive.

Honeypots are frequently used by cities or countries to manage their tourism industry. The use of honeypots can protect fragile land away from major cities while satisfying tourists.

One such example is the construction of local parks to prevent tourists from damaging more valuable ecosystems farther from their main destination. Honeypots have the added benefit of concentrating a large number of income-generating visitors in one place, thus developing that area, and in turn making the area more appealing to tourists. However, honeypots can suffer from problems of overcrowding, including litter, crime, and strain on facilities and transport networks. Honeypots attract tourists because of parking spaces, shopping centres, parks and public toilets.

Examples in the United Kingdom include Bowness-on-Windermere in the Lake District, Lulworth Cove in Dorset, and Castleton in the Peak District.

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