Key areas of study for this question:

  • What is development?
  • Measuring development
  • Development in Ghana
  • What are the 'Millennium Development Goals (MDG's)'?
  • Millennium Development Goals and Uganda
  • Millennium Development Goals and southern Asia
  • Non-governmental organisations (NGO's) and the MDG's.


What we think development is - One common view of development is that it can be measured economically – that increasing wealth or increasing levels of poverty are indicators of development.

However, development is:

  • Reducing levels of poverty
  • Increasing levels of wealth
  • Reducing the gap between the richest and poorest members of society
  • Creating equal status for men and women
  • Creating justice, freedom of speech and political participation from everyone
  • Ensuring everyone is safe from conflict and terrorism
  • Ensuring everyone fulfils their basic needs – food water and shelter
  • Ensuring that all children have good standards of education.


In order to study development, geographers must first measure how developed one country is either compared to other countries or to the same country in the past. To measure development, geographers use a number of indicators.



  • Gross National Income (GNI) - Previously known as Gross National Product (GNP) - The total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year plus income from people living abroad.
  • GNI per capita - A country's GNI divided by its population.
  • Gross Domestic Income (GDI) - Previously known as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - The total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year.
  • Life Expectancy - The average age to which a person lives.
  • Infant Mortality Rate - The number of babies per 1000 live births who die under the age of 1 year old.
  • Quality of Life - Is a measure of how happy and content people are with their lives.
  • Unemployment - Measured by the number of people who cannot find work.
  • People per doctor - The number of doctors per 10,000 people.
  • Risk of disease - The percentage of people with dangerous diseases such as AIDS and malaria.
  • Access to education - How many people attend schools and universities.
  • Literacy rate - The percentage of adults who can read and write.
  • Human Development Index (HDI) - A mix of indices that show life expectancy, adult literacy, education and GNP per capita.




















In 1980, the Brandt Report, written by German Willy Brandt, divided the world into the rich North and poor South. However, the picture has changed considerably since, with many countries such as Brazil, India and China developing rapidly.
















Some even argue that the terms MEDC and LEDC are no longer appropriate to describe countries in various stages of development. The World Bank now classifies the world's countries into 4 categories of wealth:

  • Low income
  • Lower Middle income
  • Upper Middle income
  • High income


lesson-1-measuring-development.ppt lesson-1-measuring-development.ppt



KEY QUESTION TO CONSIDER - What are the regional patterns of economic and/or social development in one LEDC?


  • Ghana is a country in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • The GNI is $770 per person.
  • 45% of the population of Ghana live on less than $1 per day.
  • 19% of children are malnourished.
  • Ghana suffers from a sharp 'north-south divide'.
  • The south has a long wet season, so farmers grow sorghum and cocoa.
  • The north has unreliable rainfall, so farmers grow fewer crops and many keep goats.
  • More people live in urban areas in the south.
  • Most people work on farms, many as landless labourers.
  • Incomes in urban areas are up to 2.5 times higher than those in rural areas due to some manufacturing industries and growth in the tourism industry.










EXAM STYLE QUESTION: Describe how patterns of development differ within one LEDC that you have studied. [6]

ANSWER: Development differs in Ghana by the North-South divide. In the south of Ghana it is fairly urbanised, better transport and more job opportunities.  Also the south has better farmland due to the reliable rainfall whereas in the north rainfall is unreliable and therefore farming is less intensive. In the south, there is better education and more chance of children attending school than in the north.  The north is very rural and the local people can not afford to travel to go to school. Medical care is also better in the south with up to 80% of people having access to medical care compared with a much lower number in the north.


lesson-2-ghana-and-development.ppt lesson-2-ghana-and-development.ppt

lesson-2-comparing-ghana-and-the-uk.pdf lesson-2-comparing-ghana-and-the-uk.pdf

lesson-2-map-of-ghana.pdf lesson-2-map-of-ghana.pdf

lesson-3-ghana-and-development.pdf lesson-3-ghana-and-development.pdf


In 2000, the United Nations (UN) set 8 targets, known as Millennium Development Goals, which aimed to promote human development.






















lesson-4-millennium-development-goals.ppt lesson-4-millennium-development-goals.ppt

lesson-4-mdg-s-notes.pdf lesson-4-mdg-s-notes.pdf


Some countries have made good progress towards these goals, whilst others, particularly African countries, have made little. In 2009, the UN reported that progress had been made towards achieving the goals:

  • Globally, the proportion of hungry people decreased from 20% in 1990 to 16% in 2006.
  • Poverty levels have fallen dramatically in east Asia but elsewhere, progress has been slow, e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa. Here the poverty rate remains above 50%.
  • Global enrolment in primary education reached 88% in 2007, up from 83% in 2000.
  • Deaths in children under 5 years old have fallen to 9 million in 2007, down from 12 million in 1990. Child mortality rates remain high in sub-Saharan Africa, although the distribution of bed nets has reduced the number of deaths from malaria.
  • The number of AIDS deaths peaked in 2005 at 2.2 million and has since declined. However, the number of people living with HIV worldwide - estimated at 33 million in 2007 - continues to grow.


Aid can also help countries reach the goals. Aid is the transfer of resources from richer countries to poorer ones. It includes money, equipment, training and loans. There are different types of aid. (See attached document)


development-and-aid.docx development-and-aid.docx



Uganda has made important progress towards many of the MDG targets. Progress has been particularly strong in reducing the share of the population that lives in poverty, and Uganda is on track to meet the MDG target of halving poverty by 2015.

There has also been significant progress towards reducing the share of the population suffering from hunger. There has also been progress has been made in terms of gender equality and empowerment of women.

The target of gender parity between boys and girls in primary education has been achieved, and the country is on track to meet the targets for access to HIV/AIDS treatment and access to safe water.

There has also been progress in areas related to the global partnership for development, notably in ensuring debt relief and sustainability, as well as expanding access to information and communication technology.

Uganda appears likely to achieve the targets for Goals 1, 3, 6, 7 and 8. Uganda may also be able to achieve Goal 2. However, progress towards Goals 4 and 5 is uncertain.


Progress in southern Asia has been slower than most other regions of the world with only a 3% drop in extreme poverty rates, from 42% to 39%. There are brighter spots in the UN report, such as 11% gain in primary school enrolment. Southern Asia has achieved its target of cutting in half the proportion of people without access to clean water, but it is lagging behind in providing access to safe sanitation with 580 million people still without sanitation. Despite some gains for girls' school enrolment, southern Asian women remain at a huge disadvantage. Only 19% of paid jobs in the region are held by women. Maternal health conditions also remain dismal. In 2009, the death rate of children borrn to south Asian mothers was 7-11%.












lesson-6-mdgs-and-india.ppt lesson-6-mdgs-and-india.ppt 


Small scale development projects rely on making small changes, working with local people and using local skills. This can be described as 'bottom-up development'. Small scale projects aim to meet everyday needs such as clean water and sanitation. This development does not rely on heavy investment, as it is often supported by non-governmental organisations (NGO's) and uses appropriate technology.








lesson-7-ngo-s-and-mdg-s.doc lesson-7-ngo-s-and-mdg-s.doc

ngo-s-and-mdg-s.pdf ngo-s-and-mdg-s.pdf

lesson-7-ngo-s-and-mdg-s-wateraid-example.doc lesson-7-ngo-s-and-mdg-s-wateraid-example.doc


ALSO LOOK AT:                                                                                                        (Choose Ghana and India from the drop down menu to see how Oxfam has helped in the countries)



Explain how NGOs can help LEDCs achieve one or more of the Millennium Development Goals. Use one or more examples to illustrate your answer. [6]

  • NGOs work with poor communities on small scale, community led projects and educates locals.
  • Oxfam/WaterAid is providing clean water in rural Ghana. This will help achieve Goal 4, for example to reduce child mortality.
  • Save the Children will provide food aid and shelter in emergency situations.
  • Both help achieve MDG 1 to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
  • PlayPump water roundabout systems - more than 1200 in Africa, helping countries like South Africa, Zambia, Mozambique and Swaziland.


Compare the progress in development made in recent years by South Asian countries such as India, with Sub-Saharan countries such as Tanzania. Use examples in your answer. [6]

  • South Asia tends to have made more progress than sub-Saharan Africa in economic and social development e.g. in:
  • Health care, Education, Reducing fertility, Infrastructure projects e.g. dams (use examples from the progress PowerPoint)

EXAMPLE EXAM ANSWER: Basically South Asia has made excellent progress on Goals 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Bangladesh has improved education (goal 2) by introducing “second chance schools”, which has improved literacy rates across the country. In India, the amount of children out of school is now only 1% (in 2011). South Asia has also made excellent progress with healthcare which has improved the quality of life and life expectancy. Sub-Saharan African countries have not made as much progress as South Asia. Many countries are still nowhere near achieving the Millennium Development Goals. However, they have made significant progress towards Goal 2 – especially Tanzania, where they have abolished school fees.


Describe ways in which governments or other agencies are trying to reach one or more of their MDGs. Give examples. [6]

EXAMPLE EXAM ANSWER: In India, UNICEF has worked with governments to introduce a project to enlist women to lead projects. Women were used to help improve community water supplies. For this, they are paid a small wage which improves the quality of their lives.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Whereas, in Mozambique, UNICEF and governments are working to lower the malaria risk. Alongside Oxfam, 200,000 mosquito nets and treatment kits have been given to 100,000 families. This has been extremely successful with 96% of families using the nets. Not only has this improved the quality of life, it has also helped Mozambique work towards achieving goal 4 (reducing child mortality) and goal 6 (reducing the HIV/Aids and malaria risk). In Uganda, the U.P.E (Universal Primary Education) program was set up by the Ugandan government. The government now pays for ALL children to attend primary school and therefore helping Uganda make significant progress towards goal 2 (achieve universal primary education)

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